Dr. Rajkumar SinghThe Government led by Rajiv Gandhi in May 1986 introduced a new National Policy on Education and in the same year it was adopted by the Parliament. After the declaration of the new policy the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, announced the programme of Action for its implementation. It laid emphasis on vocationalisation of education as well as adult education. The new policy called for special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise educational opportunity, especially for women folk, Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled caste communities. It called for a ‘child-centred approach’ in primary education, and launched ‘Operation Blackboard’ to improve primary schools nationwide. The central advisory board of education committee or Janardhana Reddy Committee reported in 1992, ‘Every effort should be made to ensure that the constitutional obligation for providing free and compulsory education up to age of 14 years becomes a reality before we enter the twenty-first century.’ By the time, with the coming of Globalisation the education system of India is undergoing constant changes. The phenomenon of globalisation is considered as the most widespread trend our country has ever witnessed. A globalised world is one in which political, economic, cultural, social and educational events become more and more multi-directional but yet inter-connected.The term ‘globalisation’ means integration of economies and societies through cross-country flows of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. Cross border integration can have several dimensions-cultural, social, political and economic. In other words, the total education system of world came under one roof. It requires the unification of teaching curriculum, methodology and upgradation of knowledge and system to remain in context for efficiency and effectiveness by which transformation of knowledge in justified manner to attain goods of life. Globalisation in historical context has a longer origin than most people are prepared to acknowledge. Two trends in 1980s and 1990s influenced educational policies all over the world. In education, the changes brought on by globalisation have been manifested through various channels and mechanisms as reforms of structure, modes of financial administration and curriculum. In several countries, they expressed adoption of neo-liberal policies and led to attempts to cut public expenditure besides maximising. A positive step in this direction perhaps is the need to explore the use of innovative assessment procedures. The primary goals of authentic assessment which appear with the educational needs of contemporary globalised era are, to develop learner’s cognitive strategies for self-monitoring of progress; to foster the learner’s ability for higher-order thinking skills; to measure progress against learner’s own development, not the norm, and to provide more accurate evidence of a learner’s abilities than traditional tests.To the people of India in general and educated Indians in particular, globalisation seems to be rather mild and well-meaning, more like an imperceptible breeze, which blows in silently, fills up the psychological atmosphere, creates a mental mood, inspires an intellectual attitude and finally settles down as a cultural climate-pervasive protein and ubiquitous. Since, coming globalisation is exercising a profound influence on education and two significant developments may clearly be cited, the first is advent of education as a business and profitable activity and second the technological revolution has provided a new mode of delivering education. Especially, the higher education system is increasingly becoming market-driven. Higher Education has been a learning process and it enables us to become a good citizen of a civil society but this foundation of education is being seriously eroded by globalisation and the market demand is influencing what is taught and researched in universities. As a result of privatisation, system of education has widely proliferated and become profit-oriented that is sharpening gap between the rich and the poor in terms of access to quality education in our society. In India, students and their abilities are marred due to various situations like unavailability of multi-cultural and multi-disciplinary institutes, lack of research-based tutoring and high fee structure. The well-off strata choose amongst the top notch options and middle-level group is left with fewer institutes, which are screened on differentcriteria.In response to the globalisation process, the Government of India has viewed decentralisation as a way to increase efficiency by giving more responsibility to local level functionaries, which in turn, is expected to increase motivation and accountability. And as a part of liberalisation policy, it has been suggested that education should be progressively privatised and that access to it should be made subject to payment of appropriate prices. The Government, therefore, encourages establishment of a larger number ofprivate institutions and even private universities are being encouraged. Simultaneously, mechanism to cater to the needs of those who cannot afford payment of high fee is also being evolved. But despite this there is no end of fear that the process of globalisation may apparently shape the perspective of educational reforms in favour of those who have already been benefitted from the system as they are in a position to influence policy Dimensions of Indian higher educationIn sphere of higher education, India is the third-largest higher education system, only behind the US and China producing almost 2.5 million graduates every year. Hence there are enormous opportunities for professionals trained in Indian universities to pursue their career in teaching and research also, in addition to opportunities available in industries and business. At present there are 425 universities and university-level institutions in India apart from around 20,000 colleges including 1,800 women college. The total enrolment of students in universities and colleges is approximately 12 million while the number of teachers is 4.5 lakh.Despite the large educational infrastructure, the efforts to privatise higher education in India by encouraging private agencies to set up institutions of higher learning have enjoyed limited success in general education. Also, the quality of higher education in India is poor and is facing enormous challenges in today’s global world.There is no doubt in the fact that globalisation has created unprecedented opportunities for sustainable development and poverty reduction, but simultaneously it has posed great threats to employment and livelihoods, to environment and human society in general. In particular, there is the possibility of erosion of national values by imbibing alien culture. In India, during this period of globalisation, much of the contemporary thought has gone into the issues of programmed learning, multi-media teaching, macro-micro teaching, distance learning and other problems relating to curriculum. No subject has been so much neglected as the development of humanistic values, creativity, cultural, moral, emotional and spiritual dimensions of teaching-learning process. The threat is of the erosion of rich and old culture of human values. So, globalisation has transformed education and will continue to do so, leaving us with a future that is more unpredictable than ever.The author is Professor and HeadDepartment of Political ScienceDean, Faculty of Social SciencesB.N.Mandal University, Madhepura.
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