The planning and development of water resources are the paramount perspective. The needs of drinking water for the people and the live stock have to be met in both urban and rural area Judiously. The need for the domestic and the industrial purpose have largely been concentrated in and around major cities. But in so far as the demands of rural populace is concerned, this needs to be increased sharply in view of the fact that all the development programs improve local economy of all parameters.
The demand for hydro and thermal power generation as well for industrial uses is also needed to be increased substantially. As a result therefore, the water as a scare source shall still become more scarce in the upcoming future. This, therefore, demands to underscore needs for the most effective and efficient water management and judious utilisation.
The water quality which of course, is the most important aspect seeking attention both at government as well as public level and this is fundamentally to be determined by bacterial and physio-chemical parameters. Water may be termed unfit for drinking purposes because of excessive impurities in respect of its unhygienic supplies either at source or thence through water pipes which most often than not are mostly leaking from supply pipes whereas the department at the helm is least bothered about. It has mostly been seen by one and all that the water which is predominantly the biggest necessity next to air is least cared far. At places there is a acute scarcity so much so that the people cry for drops of water and then there is huge flooding of water accruing from leakages out of laid out pipes by the department at the helm of affairs.
While it is easy to understand point source of pollution involving wastes flushed into cities severs or discharged directly by an industry, non-point source pollution is containing the surface and ground water supplies, fishing areas, recreational streams and lakes. Moreover, any estimate of non-point pollution must consider specific area conditions such as opography, climate and land use. The specific contribution of each source is amply difficult to ascertain and determine estimate at any location and all these varies from area to area.The predominant sources of non-point pollution are the agricultural activities, contributing as unabsorbed fertilisers, pesticide and deforestation activities contributing sediments , municipal and other solid wastes disposal contributing organic and inorganic pollutant through bleaching mine and spoil dumps contributing minerals through surface runoff from congregations at places of pilgrimages resulting in a significant quantities insofar as human and animal wastes are concerned.
The quality of water management in our country has necessarily involved certain regulatory measures as provided in the water Act 1974, Despite the existence of central and the state pollution Boards respectively over the decades, Negligible percentage of large and medium standard industries have adopted the necessary measures for effluent emissions of noxious gases. The most notable activities for the improvement of water supply taken up by the government included National Drinking Mission (NDWM), Ganga Action Plan (GAP), Scheme of Common Effluent Treatment Plant and National Action Plan. All these are in hanging fire despite the fact that multi-hued planning and policies, have since long been formulated and action of course taken at certain location. Still it is a matter of pity that the desired aims have not been achieved despite crores of rupees have been utilized.
Our most pious revers like the Ganga the Yamuna and the Saraswati still give clarion call for cleansing. Many hopes rst with the present government under the vision of Modi.
In all such areas various scientific technologies have been put in practice to remove turbidity, suspended solid and colifoms water emission technologies, have been formulated and put into practice for water supply.
The technologies practiced in the areas of wastewater treatment, with a few exceptions aftently suffer from certain drawbacks as for example high initial and operational costs and land requirements. In the recent past, technologies have, however, been formulated and developed for bio-methanation of industrial and domestic wastewater. The technologies for recycle and revise of wastewater are as well available for drinking purposes. Major R and D areas or application of genetic engineerging for resource recovery based wastewater treatment are mostly prevalent firstly for drinking purposes and secondly or other uses.
The difficulty in assessment impact of programs such as Ganga Action Plan (GAP) in improvement in water quality related to non-availability of objective methodology for computation of the water quality index in its broader spectrum.
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