America as a hard power or as a soft power had created a monopoly or I would preferably say, had created a complete hegemony over the world. This hegemony of the US over the world is one of the major reasons why the world looks forward to each and every thing which goes around the United States. In recent times, the biggest attraction coming from this superpower is the ongoing process of USA’s Presidential Elections which is all set to happen in the month of November. Being the world oldest ongoing democracy, the Elections process of the United States and the constitutional provisions on the basis of which elections are done, is to been seen as one of the best systems for conducting elections in the contemporary times.The current system of elections had developed over a long period of time, it was not the same as when the first presidential elections happened in the United States. At present, under the current system, the Electoral College has been assigned with the duty of electing US President. Initially the elections to the office of President was a direct process, in which People directly elected their President and Vice President. It was in 1804 Presidential Elections that the system of Electoral College was firstly adopted. Under this system of elections, people vote for their favorite candidate but in an indirect way. Each state of the United States had been given a particular number of Electoral College members. There are a total of 538 members in the College which are divided across each State. The process laid down in the constitution of America, the candidate who gets the popular/majority numbers of the votes from a particular state takes all the votes of the Electoral College members coming from that particular state. The number of College members each state gets is equal to the total number of Senators and members of the House of Representatives that particular state has. It hardly matters that if the candidate gets 51 per cent of total votes or 90 per cent of total votes.This can make a Candidate secure victory in the elections, despite getting a popular vote from across the whole country, and this was the main reason why such a system was adopted.The Candidate who gets votes more than or equal to 270 members of the Electoral College secures the victory in Presidential Elections. In any case, if none of the candidates manages to get the votes of the majority of the College members, then only the lower house of Congress, popularly known as the House of Representatives gets to decide who should be declared as the winner of the elections. Similarly, if the same situation arises during the election of Vice President then the Upper House of Congress ‘The Senate’ has the power to decide the winner.Dissimilar to India’s Lok Sabha General Elections who’s ultimate goals are to elect MP who further elects the PM, the United States has a different way of electing President. In the United States the elections for the office of President/Vice President and the Congress (American Parliament) happen separately. One of the biggest difference between the democracies of both countries is that the Indian Head of Govt. is answerable to the Parliament and here is a Harmony between the Legislature and the Executives but in the US, the President and his whole cabinet is not answerable to the Congress (both the Senate and the House of Representatives) except for the Motion of Impeachment of President. Both the legislature and executive are free from one another. Another difference in the electoral process is that in India EVM (Electronic Voting Machines) are used for carrying out the process whereas in America elections are done on ‘Ballots’. One of the biggest things to look forward to in these Presidential Elections is the organising of Presidential Debates between the candidates. This time also we will see these candidates participating in the all interested Presidential Debate.The United States unlike India where we have a multi party system, US has a two Party System First ‘The Republican Party’ central- right wing which is also the same party from which Donald Trump belongs to and the other one which is regarded as central- left is ‘The Democratic Party’ who has declared former Vice President Joe Biden as their Presidential Candidate for this year’s elections. The symbols of both the parties are inspired from some real life events. ‘Donkey in Blue’ representsThe Democratic Party whereas ‘Elephant in Red’ represents The Republican Party. In the United States elections for the selection of Presidential Candidate from a party is taken very seriously. Like for being Presidential Candidate from a particular party one needs to win the internal elections of the party.In the contemporary times The Republican Party is regarded as the party of white people and the Democratic Party is regarded as the party of Black African Americans. This has turned out to be one of the major political issues for this year’s election campaign, after the killing of George Floyd which earlier led to a massive campaign of ‘Black life Matters’. Candidates from both the major parties are the oldest to contest elections. Voting for the Electoral College will be done on 3rd November 2020 and the results of each state would be declared according to that following which, the elections for President by the College will be performed on December 14, 2020 either to elect a new President or to re-elect Trump for the second turn. The results will not only affect America but the world in direct or an indirect way.
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